Isikhangiso

Inja: Umngane Ongcono Kakhulu Womuntu

Scientific ucwaningo luye lwafakazela ukuthi izinja ziyizidalwa ezinozwela ezinqoba izithiyo ukuze zisize yazo womuntu abanikazi.

Humans babe nezinja ezifuywayo izinkulungwane zeminyaka futhi ukuhlangana phakathi kwabantu nezinja zabo ezifuywayo kuyisibonelo esihle sobuhlobo obuqinile nobuvusa imizwa. Abanikazi bezinja eziziqhenyayo emhlabeni wonke bebelokhu bezizwa futhi bevame ukuxoxa nabangane babo nomndeni ngesinye isikhathi ukuthi bazizwa kanjani futhi bazizwe kanjani ukuthi i-canine abangane bagcwele uzwela nobubele ikakhulukazi ngezikhathi lapho abanikazi becasukile futhi bekhungathekile. Izinja aziwa nje kuphela ngokuthanda abanikazi bazo kodwa nezinja nazo zibheka laba bantu njengomndeni wabo onothando obahlinzeka ngokukhosela nokuvikela. Izinja zibhalwe 'njengomngane omkhulu womuntu' kusukela kudala zikhona izincwadi. Ama-anecdotes anjalo mayelana nokwethembeka okukhethekile kwenja, uthando nokuxhumana nabantu kuye kwaduma ngazo zonke izindlela kungaba izincwadi, izinkondlo noma amafilimu afakiwe. Naphezu kwalokhu kuqonda okumangazayo mayelana nokuthi buhle kangakanani ubudlelwano phakathi komuntu nenja yakhe efuywayo, izifundo zesayensi ezinemiphumela exubile ziye zakhiqizwa kule ndawo kuze kube manje.

Izinja ziyizidalwa ezinozwelo

Abacwaningi baseJohn Hopkins University babonisile ocwaningweni lwabo olushicilelwe ku I-Springer's Learning kanye Ukuziphatha ukuthi izinja zingabangane abakhulu bomuntu futhi ziyizidalwa ezinozwelo kakhulu ezinokuqwashisa okuphansi komphakathi futhi zigijimela ukududuza abanikazi bazo lapho zibona ukuthi abanikazi bazo abangabantu basosizini. Abacwaningi benze izivivinyo ezimbalwa ukuze baqonde amazinga okuzwela izinja ezibonisa kubanikazi bazo. Kokunye ukuhlola okuningi, isethi yabanikazi bezinja abangu-34 nezinja zabo ezinobukhulu obuhlukene nezinhlobo zaqoqwa futhi abanikazi bacelwa ukuba bakhale noma bahumise ingoma. Kwenziwa kube kanye ngesikhathi kupheya ngalinye lomnikazi wenja nenja kuyilapho bobabili behlezi ngaphesheya emakamelweni ahlukene nomnyango wengilazi okhanyayo ovaliwe phakathi osekelwa kuphela ngozibuthe abathathu ukuze uvuleke kalula. Abacwaningi bahlulele ngokucophelela ukusabela kokuziphatha kwenja kanye nokushaya kwenhliziyo yayo (ngokomzimba) ngokuthatha izilinganiso kusiqaphi sokushaya kwenhliziyo. Kwabonakala ukuthi lapho abanikazi bazo ‘bekhala’ noma bememeza bethi “siza” futhi izinja zizwa lokhu kumemeza kokucindezeleka, zazivula umnyango ngokushesha okuphindwe kathathu ukuze zingene futhi zinikeze induduzo nosizo futhi ngokuyisisekelo “zikhulule” abanikazi bazo. Lokhu kuqhathaniswa ncamashi nesikhathi abanikazi baso babecula ingoma kuphela bebonakala bejabule. Uma ubheka ukuqashelwa okuningiliziwe okurekhodiwe, izinja ziphendule ngesilinganiso samasekhondi angu-24.43 lapho abanikazi bazo benza sengathi bacindezelekile uma kuqhathaniswa nesilinganiso sokuphendula samasekhondi angu-95.89 lapho abanikazi babonakala bejabule kuyilapho behumzela izingane imilolozelo. Le ndlela ithathelwe ku-paradigm 'ebanjwe enye' esetshenziswe ezifundweni eziningi ezibandakanya amagundane.

Kuyathakazelisa ukudingida ukuthi kungani izinja zisavula umnyango ekubeni abanikazi bawo bebelokhu bevungama nje kungekho nkinga. Lokhu kubonisa ukuthi ukuziphatha kwenja bekungasekelwe nje uzwela kodwa futhi kuphakamise isidingo sabo sokuxhumana nabantu kanye nelukuluku lokufuna ukwazi ukuthi yini elele ngaphesheya komnyango. Lezo zinja ezabonisa ukusabela ngokushesha okukhulu ekuvuleni umnyango zazinamazinga aphansi okucindezeleka ngokwazo. Amazinga okucindezeleka aqashelwa ngokunquma umugqa wenqubekelaphambili ngokwenza izilinganiso eziyisisekelo. Lokhu ukubonwa kwengqondo okuqondakalayo futhi okusekelwe kahle ukuthi izinja kuzodingeka zinqobe ukucindezeleka kwazo ukuze zenze isenzo (lapha, ukuvula umnyango). Lokhu kusho ukuthi izinja zicindezela imizwa yazo futhi zenze uzwela esikhundleni ngokugxila kubanikazi bazo abangabantu. Isimo esifanayo sibonakala ezinganeni futhi ngezinye izikhathi abantu abadala lapho kufanele banqobe ukucindezeleka komuntu siqu okubacindezelayo ukuze bakwazi ukunikeza usizo kothile. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, izinja ezingawuvulanga nhlobo umnyango zabonisa izimpawu ezicacile zokucindezeleka kuzo njengokuhefuzela noma ukuhamba kancane okukhombisa ukukhathazeka kwazo ngesimo esihilela othile ezimthanda ngempela. Abacwaningi bagcizelela ukuthi lokhu ukuziphatha okuvamile futhi akukhathazi nakancane njengoba izinja, njengabantu, zingabonisa amazinga ahlukene ozwelo ngesikhathi esithile. Kokunye ukuhlola, abacwaningi bahlaziye ukubuka kwezinja kubanikazi bazo ukuze bafunde okwengeziwe ngobuhlobo.

Ocwaningweni olwenziwe, izinja eziyi-16 kwezingama-34 beziyizinja zokwelapha eziqeqeshiwe kanye “nezinja zosizo” ezibhalisiwe. Kodwa-ke, zonke izinja zenze ngendlela efanayo kungakhathaliseki ukuthi ziyizinja zesevisi noma cha, noma ngisho neminyaka noma uhlobo lwazo lwalungenandaba. Lokhu kusho ukuthi zonke izinja zibonisa izici ezifanayo zokuhlangana komuntu nezilwane, ukuthi izinja zokwelapha zithole amakhono engeziwe lapho zibhalisa njengezinja zesevisi futhi lawa makhono alandisa ngokulalela kunesimo somzwelo. Lo mphumela unemithelela eqinile kumbandela osetshenziswa ukukhetha nokuqeqesha izinja zokwelapha isevisi. Ochwepheshe bangahlulela ukuthi yiziphi izici ezibaluleke kakhulu ukwenza ukuthuthukiswa kokwelapha ekuklameni izimiso zokukhetha.

Ucwaningo lubonisa ukuzwela okuphezulu kwama-canine emizwa nemizwa yabantu njengoba bebonakala bebona kakhulu ushintsho esimweni somzwelo sabantu. Ukufunda okunjalo kuthuthukisa ukuqonda kwethu uzwelo lwe-canine kanye nobubanzi bokuziphatha kwezinhlobo ezahlukene zezinhlobo kumongo ojwayelekile. Kungajabulisa ukwandisa ububanzi balo msebenzi ukwenza izifundo ezengeziwe kwezinye izilwane ezifuywayo njengamakati, onogwaja noma opholi. Ukuzama ukuqonda indlela izinja ezicabanga futhi zisabele ngayo kungasinikeza isiqalo sokuqonda ukuthi uzwela nobubele buvela kanjani nakubantu okubenza benze izinto ngozwela ezimweni ezinzima. Kungasisiza ukuthi siphenye izinga lokusabela kobubele futhi sithuthukise ukuqonda kwethu umlando owabelana ngawo wokuziphendukela kwemvelo kwezilwane ezincelisayo - abantu nezinja.

***

{Ungafunda iphepha lokuqala locwaningo ngokuchofoza isixhumanisi se-DOI esinikezwe ngezansi ohlwini lwemithombo ekhonjiwe}

Umthombo (s)

Sanford EM et al. 2018. U-Timmy's in the well: Ukuzwela nokusiza nge-prosocial ezinjeni. Ukufunda Nokuziphathahttps://doi.org/10.3758/s13420-018-0332-3

***

Ithimba le-SCIEU
Ithimba le-SCIEUhttps://www.ScientificEuropean.co.uk
I-Scientific European® | I-SCIEU.com | Intuthuko enkulu kwezesayensi. Umthelela esintwini. Izingqondo ezikhuthazayo.

Bhalisela iphephandaba lethu

Ukuvuselelwa ngazo zonke izindaba zakamuva, okunikezwayo kanye nezimemezelo ezikhethekile.

Imibhalo Edume Kakhulu

Isimo Somuthi Wokugomela I-COVID-19: Uhlolojikelele

Ukusesha umuthi wokugomela umhlaba wonke we-COVID-19, osebenza kubo bonke...

Ukusetshenziswa Kokudla Okugaywe Kakhulu Nezempilo: Ubufakazi obusha obuvela ocwaningweni

Izifundo ezimbili zinikeza ubufakazi obuhlotshaniswa nokusetshenziswa okuphezulu kwe ...
- Ukukhangisa -
94,232abalandeliLike
47,611AbalandeliLandela
1,772AbalandeliLandela
30SubscribersBhalisa