Isikhangiso

I-Psittacosis eYurophu: Ukwanda Okungajwayelekile Ezimeni Ze-Chlamydophila psittaci 

NgoFebhuwari 2024, amazwe amahlanu aku-WHO European isifunda (Austria, Denmark, Germany, Sweden and The Netherlands) ibike ukwanda okungajwayelekile kwamacala e-psittacosis ngo-2023 futhi ekuqaleni kuka-2024, okumakwe ikakhulukazi kusukela ngoNovemba-Disemba 2023. Kuphinde kwabikwa nokufa kwabahlanu. Ukuchayeka ezinyonini zasendle kanye/noma ezifuywayo kwabikwa ezikhathini eziningi.  

I-Psittacosis a ukutheleleka kokuphefumula okubangelwa i-Chlamydophila psittaci (C. psittaci), amagciwane avame ukuthelela izinyoni. Ukutheleleka kwabantu kwenzeka ikakhulukazi ngokuthintana nokuphuma kwezinyoni ezithelelekile futhi ngokuvamile kuhlotshaniswa nalabo abasebenza nezinyoni ezifuywayo, abasebenzi bezinkukhu, odokotela bezilwane, abanikazi bezinyoni ezifuywayo, kanye nabasebenzi bezingadi ezindaweni lapho i-C. psittaci i-epizootic kubantu bezinyoni zomdabu. Ukusulelana kwezifo kubantu kwenzeka ikakhulukazi ngokuhogela izinhlayiya eziphuma emoyeni eziphuma ekujuleni kokuphefumula, indle eyomile, noma uthuli lwezimpaphe. Ukuthintana ngqo nezinyoni akudingekile ukuze ukutheleleka kwenzeke. 

Ngokuvamile, i-psittacosis yisifo esithambile, esinezimpawu ezihlanganisa imfiva nokugodola, ikhanda elibuhlungu, ukuqaqamba kwemisipha kanye nokukhwehlela okomile. Izimpawu zivame ukukhula phakathi kwezinsuku ezi-5 kuya kweziyi-14 ngemuva kokuchayeka kubhaktheriya.  

Ukwelashwa ngokushesha ngama-antibiotic kuyasebenza futhi kuvumela ukugwema izinkinga ezifana nenyumoniya. Ngokwelashwa okufanele ngama-antibiotic, i-psittacosis ayivamisile (ngaphansi kweyodwa kweziyi-1) iphumela ekufeni. 

I-psittacosis yabantu yisifo esibonakalayo emazweni athintekile Europe. Uphenyo lwe-Epidemiological lwenziwa ukuze kutholakale ukuchayeka okungaba khona kanye namaqoqo amacala. Izinhlelo zikazwelonke zokugada zisiqaphe ngeso lokhozi isimo, okuhlanganisa nokuhlaziywa kwaselabhorethri kwamasampula ezinyoni zasendle ahanjiswe ukuze kuhlolwe umkhuhlane wezinyoni ukuze kuqinisekiswe ukusabalala kwe-C. psittaci phakathi kwezinyoni zasendle. 

Sekukonke, amazwe amahlanu aku-WHO European isifunda sabika ukwanda okungajwayelekile nokungalindelekile kwemibiko yamacala e-C. psittaci. Ezinye zezigameko ezibikiwe zaba nenyumoniya futhi zaholela ekulalisweni esibhedlela, kwabikwa nezigameko ezibulalayo. 

ISweden ibike ukwanda okuvamile kwamacala e-psittacosis kusukela ngo-2017, okungase kuhlotshaniswe nokusetshenziswa okwenyuka kwamaphaneli e-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) azwela kakhulu. Ukwanda kwezimo ezibikiwe ze-psittacosis kuwo wonke amazwe kudinga uphenyo olwengeziwe ukuze kutholwe ukuthi ingabe kuwukwenyuka kweqiniso kwamacala noma ukwanda ngenxa yokugada okubucayi noma amasu okuxilonga. 

Njengamanje, akukho okukhombisa ukuthi lesi sifo sisakazwa ngabantu ezweni noma emhlabeni jikelele. Ngokuvamile, abantu abasabalalisi amagciwane abangela i-psittacosis kwabanye abantu, ngakho mancane amathuba okuthi lesi sifo sidluliselwe kumuntu sisuka kumuntu.  

Uma itholwe ngendlela efanele, leli pathogen liyelapheka ngama-antibiotics. 

I-WHO incoma lezi zinyathelo ezilandelayo zokuvimbela nokulawula i-psittacosis: 

  • ukwandisa ukuqwashisa kodokotela ukuze bahlole amacala asolwayo e-C. psittaci ukuze axilongwe kusetshenziswa i-RT-PCR. 
  • ukwandisa ukuqwashisa phakathi kwabanikazi bezinyoni ezivalelwe noma ezifuywayo, ikakhulukazi ama-psittacines, ukuthi i-pathogen ingathwalwa ngaphandle kokugula okubonakalayo. 
  • ukuhlukanisa izinyoni ezisanda kutholwa. Uma kukhona inyoni egulayo, thintana nodokotela wezilwane ukuze ahlolwe futhi alashwe. 
  • ukwenza ukugada kwe-C. psittaci ezinyonini zasendle, okungase kuhlanganise nezibonelo ezikhona eziqoqwe ngenxa yezinye izizathu. 
  • ukukhuthaza abantu abanezinyoni ezifuywayo ukuthi bagcine amakheji ehlanzekile, babeke amakheji ukuze undle ungasakazeki phakathi kwabo futhi ugweme amakheji aminyene kakhulu. 
  • ukugqugquzela inhlanzeko, okuhlanganisa ukugeza izandla njalo, lapho uphatha izinyoni, indle yazo, nendawo ezihlala kuzo. 
  • izinqubo ezijwayelekile zokulawula ukutheleleka kanye nezinyathelo zokuphepha zokudluliselwa kwamaconsi kufanele zisetshenziswe ezigulini ezilaliswe esibhedlela. 

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Izikhombo:  

Inhlangano Yezempilo Yomhlaba (5 Mashi 2024). Izindaba Zokuqubuka Kwezifo; I-Psittacosis European isifunda. Itholakala e-: https://www.who.int/emergencies/disease-outbreak-news/item/2024-DON509 

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