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Ithemba Lokuphila E-Europa's Ocean: I-Juno Mission ithola ukukhiqizwa kwe-Oxygen okuphansi  

I-Europa, enye yamasathelayithi amakhulu kakhulu e-Jupiter inoqweqwe oluwugqinsi lwamanzi kanye nolwandle olukhulu olungaphansi kwamanzi anosawoti ngaphansi kwendawo ebandayo ngakho iphakamisa ukuthi ibe enye yezindawo ezithembisa kakhulu kuhlelo sonozungezilanga ukuze igcine uhlobo oluthile lwempilo ngale koMhlaba. Ucwaningo lwakamuva olusekelwe ekuqaphelisweni okuqondile kwe-Juno mission eya ku-Jupiter luveze ukuthi ukukhiqizwa komoya-mpilo endaweni yase-Europa kuphansi kakhulu. Lokhu kungase kusho ukunciphisa kakhulu ukulethwa komoyampilo kusuka eqhweni elinomoya-mpilo kuya olwandle oluwuketshezi olungaphansi komhlaba kanye nobubanzi obuncane bokusekela ukuphila e-Europa's Ocean. Umkhankaso ozayo we-Europa Clipper kulindeleke ukuthi ukhanyise kabanzi mayelana nokwenzeka kokuthola uhlobo oluthile lwempilo olwandle lwase-Europa. Noma ikuphi okutholwayo kwempilo yakudala ye-microbial olwandle, ngokokuqala ngqa, kungabonisa ukuvela okuzimele kwempilo ezindaweni ezimbili ezihlukene e-Europa. indawo yonke 

I-Physics kanye ne-chemistry ziqondwa ngendlela efanayo yonke indawo, kodwa i-biology ingase ingaqondakali. Emhlabeni, ukuphila kusekelwe kukhabhoni futhi kudinga amanzi awuketshezi njengesincibilikisi sezakhi zokuphila (okuhlanganisa ikhabhoni, i-hydrogen, i-nitrogen, umoya-mpilo, i-phosphorus, nesibabule), kanye nomthombo wamandla. Amandla amaningi avela eLangeni kulandela ukubanjwa yizitshalo nge-photosynthesis futhi enziwa atholakale ngokuphefumula lapho kukhona umoya-mpilo. Ezinye izinto eziphilayo emhlabeni njenge-archaea, nokho, zingasebenzisa eminye imithombo yamandla. Futhi impilo nayo idinga isikhathi ukuze iqale futhi iguquke.  

Njengoba kunikezwe lokhu kuqonda okubanzi kokuphila (njengenqubo edinga amanzi awuketshezi, izakhi zamakhemikhali ezithile, imithombo yamandla nesikhathi), ukusesha kokuphila ngale koMhlaba ngaphakathi nangaphandle kwesimiso sonozungezilanga kuhlanganisa ukuhlonza. amaplanethi/amasathelayithi emvelo anamanzi amaningi awuketshezi, njengesinyathelo sokuqala.  

I-Europa, enye yamasathelayithi emvelo amakhulu kunawo wonke e-Jupiter, inoqweqwe oluwugqinsi lwamanzi eqhweni, umkhathi omncane ohlanganiswe ikakhulukazi nomoya-mpilo kanye nolwandle olukhulu olungaphansi komhlaba olunosawoti ongaphansi komhlaba olubamba inani lamanzi eliphindwe kabili kunasolwandle loMhlaba. Ulwandle lwase-Europa lungaba nezakhi zamakhemikhali ezidingekayo/izakhi eziyisisekelo zokuphila. I-Photosynthesis ayinakwenzeka olwandle lwase-Europa njengoba imbozwe ungqimba lweqhwa eliwugqinsi nokho ukusabela kwamakhemikhali kwaziwa ngamandla ezinto eziphilayo zakudala. Ngenxa yokuthi i-Europa nayo isindala njengoMhlaba, kuphakanyiswa ukuthi ezinye izimpilo zasendulo kungenzeka ukuthi zakhiwe olwandle lwase-Europa.  

Ukuphila akunakwenzeka endaweni yase-Europa ngenxa yokuchayeka njalo emisebeni enzima evela ku-Jupiter nangaphandle. Kodwa izinhlayiya ezikhokhisiwe emisebeni ziphula i-H2O ama-molecule eqhweni elingaphezulu ukukhiqiza i-H2 futhi O2 (ukuba khona komoyampilo emkhathini we-Europa kuqinisekiswe imigqa yokukhipha umoya ngaphambilini). Ngakho-ke umoya-mpilo okhiqizwayo kanye nokulethwa kwawo kamuva olwandle olungaphansi komhlaba kungabaluleka ekuphileni, uma ukhona. Ukuba khona kwempilo olwandle lwase-Europa kuncike futhi enanini lokukhiqizwa komoyampilo endaweni yase-Europa kanye nokusatshalaliswa komoyampilo okulandelanayo endaweni engaphansi kolwandle ukuze kusekele ukuphefumula kwezinhlobo zokuphila ezikulo.  

Ucwaningo lwakamuva olusekelwe ekubonweni okuqondile kokuqala kokuhlolwa kwe-JADE kwe-Juno mission eya ku-Jupiter luqinisekise ukuthi i-hydrogen nomoya-mpilo kuyisici esiyinhloko somkhathi wase-Europa. Abacwaningi baphinde bathola inani lokukhiqizwa komoya-mpilo endaweni yase-Europa cishe li-12 ± 6 kg ngomzuzwana okungaba ingxenye eyodwa kweshumi yezinga elikhonjiswe izifundo zangaphambilini. Lokhu kungase kusho ukunciphisa kakhulu ukulethwa komoyampilo kusuka eqhweni elinomoya-mpilo kuya olwandle oluwuketshezi olungaphansi komhlaba kanye nobubanzi obuncane bokusekela ukuphila e-Europa's Ocean.   

I-Europa Clipper mission ehlelelwe ukwethulwa ngo-Okthoba 2024 futhi iqale ukusebenza ngo-2030 izosikhanyisela kabanzi ngobukhona bendlela ethile yokuphila olwandle lwase-Europa.  

Naphezu kwamathuba amaningi, abukho ubufakazi banoma yibuphi ukuphila ukwakheka ngale koMhlaba kuze kube manje. Noma ikuphi okutholwe esikhathini esizayo kwempilo yasendulo yamagciwane olwandle lwase-Europa, ngokokuqala ngqá, kuzobonisa ukuvela okuzimele kwempilo ezindaweni ezimbili lapho izidingo ezidingekayo zihlangatshezwana nazo.  

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References:  

  1. Szalay, JR, Allegrini, F., Ebert, RW et al. Ukukhiqizwa komoyampilo kusuka ekuhlukanisekeni kwendawo yeqhwa yamanzi yase-Europa. U-Nat Astron (2024). Kushicilelwe 04 March 2024.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41550-024-02206-x  
  1. I-NASA 2024. Izindaba - I-Juno Mission ye-NASA Ikala Ukukhiqizwa Kwe-oksijeni e-Europa. 04 March 2024. Itholakala ku https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/nasas-juno-mission-measures-oxygen-production-at-europa/ 

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Umesh Prasad
Umesh Prasad
Intatheli yesayensi | Umhleli ongumsunguli, umagazini we-Scientific European

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