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Umlando Wegalaji Yasekhaya: Kutholwe amabhulokhi wokwakha amabili okuqala futhi aqanjwa ngokuthi u-Shiva no-Shakti  

Ukwakhiwa kwekhaya lethu galaxy I-Milky Way yaqala eminyakeni eyizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingu-12 edlule. Kusukela ngaleso sikhathi, iye yahlangana ngokulandelana kokuhlanganiswa neminye imithala futhi yakhula ngobuningi nangobukhulu. Izinsalela zamabhulokhi wokwakha (okungukuthi, imithala ehlanganiswe ne-Miky Way esikhathini esidlule) zingabonakala ngamavelu azo angajwayelekile wamandla kanye nomfutho we-angular kanye nensimbi ephansi. Izakhiwo ezimbili zokuqala zendlu yethu galaxy zisanda kukhonjwa kusetshenziswa idathasethi ye-Gaia futhi ziqanjwe ngokuthi u-Shiva no-Shakti ngamagama onkulunkulu bamaHindu. Gaia isikhala Isibonakude esinikezelwe ekuhloleni umthala wasekhaya siguqule isifundo se-Milky Way. I-Gaia Enceladus/ Umfudlana wesoseji, umfudlana wePontus kanye “nenhliziyo endala embi” ye-Milky Way zihlonzwe ngaphambilini kusetshenziswa idathasethi ye-Gaia. Umlando we-Milky Way ugcwele ukuhlangana. hubble Space Izithombe zesibonakude zisikisela ukuthi eminyakeni eyizigidi eziyizinkulungwane eziyisithupha kusukela manje, umthala wasekhaya uzohlangana nomthala ongumakhelwane i-Andromeda.

Imithala kanye nezinye izakhiwo ezinkulu ezakhiwe ku indawo yonke eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingu-500 ngemva kwe-Big Bang.  

Ukwakhiwa kwekhaya lethu galaxy I-Milky Way yaqala cishe eminyakeni eyizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingu-12 edlule. Kusukela ngaleso sikhathi, iye yaba nochungechunge lokuhlangana neminye imithala okube nesandla ekukhuleni kwayo ngobuningi nangobukhulu. Umlando we-Milky Way empeleni umlando wokuhlanganiswa kweminye imithala nomthala wasekhaya.  

Izici eziyisisekelo ze- izinkanyezi njengamandla kanye nomfutho we-angular kuxhumene ngqo nesivinini kanye nesiqondiso se- galaxy yemvelaphi futhi yabelwa phakathi kwezinkanyezi zomthala ofanayo. Lapho imithala ihlangana, amandla kanye nomfutho we-angular kuhlala kulondolozwa ngokuhamba kwesikhathi. Lokhu kusebenza njengethuluzi eliyinhloko ekuhlonzeni insalela ehlanganisiwe. Iqembu elikhulu le izinkanyezi enamanani afanayo angajwayelekile angajwayelekile kanye nomfutho we-angular kungenzeka kube insalela yokuhlanganiswa komthala. Futhi, izinkanyezi ezindala zine-metallicity ephansi, okungukuthi, izinkanyezi ezakheka ngaphambili zinensimbi ephansi. Ngokusekelwe kulezi zimo ezimbili zokunquma, kuyenzeka ukulandelela umlando wokuhlanganisa we-Milky Way nokho bekungeke kwenzeke ngaphandle kwedathasethi ye-Gaia. 

Yethulwe yi-ESA ngomhla ka-19 Disemba 2013, e-Gaia isikhala isibonakude sinikezelwe ocwaningweni lweMilky Way okuhlanganisa nemvelaphi yayo, ukwakheka kanye nomlando wokuziphendukela kwemvelo. Ipakwe e-Lissajous i-orbit endaweni ye-L2 Lagrange (etholakala cishe ngesigidi esingu-1.5 km ukusuka eMhlabeni ukuya ngaseLangeni) eduze I-JWST kanye nemikhumbi-mkhathi ye-Euclid, i-Gaia probe yenza ukubala okukhulu kwezinkanyezi okuhlanganisa izinkanyezi ezingaba yizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingu-1.5 ku-Milky Way ziqopha ukunyakaza kwazo, ukukhanya, izinga lokushisa nokwakheka kwazo futhi kwakheka imephu enembile ye-3D yekhaya. galaxy. Ngakho-ke, uGaia ubizwa nangokuthi umhloli wezinkanyezi eziyizigidi eziyizinkulungwane. Amasethi edatha akhiqizwe i-Gaia aguqule ucwaningo lomlando i-Milky Way.   

Ngo-2021, zisebenzisa idathasethi ye-Gaia, izazi zezinkanyezi zafunda ngokuhlangana okukhulu futhi zahlonza umfudlana we-Gaia Enceladus/Sausage, insalela ye-Gaia-Sausage-Enceladus (GSE) galaxy eyahlangana neMilky Way phakathi kweminyaka eyizigidi eziyizinkulungwane eziyi-8 neziyi-11 edlule. Kamuva, umfudlana wasePhontu kanye “nenhliziyo endala embi” ye-Milky Way kwahlonzwa ngonyaka olandelayo. Umfudlana wasePontus uyinsali yokuhlanganiswa kwePontus kuyilapho "inhliziyo empofu endala". inkanyezi iqembu elakheka ngesikhathi sokuhlangana kokuqala okwadala i-proto-Milky Way futhi liyaqhubeka nokuhlala endaweni emaphakathi ye-Milky Way.  

Manje, izazi zezinkanyezi zibika ukutholakala kwemifudlana emibili ye izinkanyezi eyakha futhi yahlanganiswa nenguqulo yokuqala ye-Milky Way yethu phakathi neminyaka eyizigidi eziyizinkulungwane eziyi-12 neziyi-13 edlule, ngesikhathi lapho imithala yayibunjwa ekuqaleni. Universe. Kulokhu, abacwaningi bahlanganisa idatha ye-Gaia ne-spectra enemininingwane ye-stellar evela ku- Ucwaningo lweSloan Digital Sky (DR17) futhi yabona ukuthi izinkanyezi beziminyene eduze kwezinhlanganisela ezimbili ezithile zamandla kanye nomfutho we-angular ochungechungeni oluthile lwezinkanyezi ezinensimbi ephansi. La maqembu amabili abe nomfutho we-angular ofana nezinkanyezi ebeziyingxenye yemithala ehlukene ehlangene ne-Milky Way. Mhlawumbe, amabhlogo wokwakha okuqala we-Milky Way, abacwaningi bawaqambe ngokuthi uShiva noShakti ngezithixo zamaHindu. Kungenzeka ukuthi amaqembu ezinkanyezi asanda kutholwa aqale ahlangana 'nenhliziyo embi endala' ye-Milky Way yethu kanye nendaba ebheke enkulumweni enkulu. galaxy waqala. Izifundo zesikhathi esizayo kufanele ziqinisekise ukuthi u-Shiva no-Shakti ngempela bayingxenye ye-prehistory ye-Milky Way.  

Kuzokwenzekani emthaleni wasekhaya esikhathini esizayo?  

Umlando wokuziphendukela kwemvelo we-Milky Way ugcwele ukuhlangana. hubble Space Izithombe zesibonakude zisikisela ukuthi eminyakeni eyizigidi eziyizinkulungwane eziyisithupha kusukela manje, umthala wasekhaya uzohlangana nomthala ongumakhelwane i-Andromeda esendaweni eqhele nge-light-year eyizigidi ezingu-2.5 ukuze kuvele umthala omusha. I-Andromeda izoshayisana ne-Milky Way ku-250,000 mph cishe eminyakeni eyizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezine kusukela manje. Ukungqubuzana phakathi kwemithala yomibili kuzohlala iminyaka eyizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezimbili okuzodala umthala oyi-elliptical ohlangene.  

Isistimu yelanga kanye noMhlaba kuzosinda kodwa kuzoba nezixhumanisi ezintsha isikhala.  

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References:   

  1. Naidu RP, et al 2021. Ukwakha Kabusha Ukuhlanganiswa Okukhulu Kokugcina Kwe-Milky Way Nocwaningo Lwe-H3. I-Astrophysical Journal, Umqulu 923, Inombolo 1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ac2d2d 
  1. Malhan K., et al 2022. I-Global Dynamical Atlas ye-Milky Way Mergers: Izingqinamba ezivela ku-Gaia EDR3–based Orbits of Globular Clusters, Stellar Streams, kanye ne-Satellite Galaxies. Ishicilelwe ngomhla ka-17 February 2022. I-Astrophysical Journal, Volume 926, Number 2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ac4d2a 
  1. UMalhan K., kanye no-Rix H.-W., 2024. 'Shiva no-Shakti: Izingcezwana ezicatshangelwayo ze-Proto-Galactic ku-Inner Milky Way. I-Astrophysical Journal. Ishicilelwe 21 March 2024. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ad1885 
  1. I-Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (MPIA). Izindaba - Abacwaningi bahlonza amabhulokhi okwakha amabili okuqala e-Milky Way. Itholakala ngo https://www.mpia.de/news/science/2024-05-shakti-shiva?c=5313826  
  2. Schiavi R. et al 2021. Ukuhlanganiswa okuzayo kwe-Milky Way nomthala we-Andromeda kanye nesiphetho sezimbobo zawo ezimnyama ezinkulu kakhulu. Ukuphrinta kuqala ku-arXiv. I-DOI: https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2102.10938  

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Umesh Prasad
Umesh Prasad
Intatheli yesayensi | Umhleli ongumsunguli, umagazini we-Scientific European

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